November 27th, 2012
Untuk memenuhi tugas rantek di designlah sebuah greenhouse untuk tanaman tomat. bentuk dan ukuran dapat dilihat pada gambar dibawah ini
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November 20th, 2012
November 14th, 2012
November 14th, 2012
Field Work Report
Field Work at Cikabayan and Gunung Geulis
- To know and compare the soil nutrients content of oil palm, rubber, coconut, and coffee.
- To know and compare chlorophyl content of oil palm, rubber, coffee, and coconut.
Objective (Gunung Geulis)
- To know and compare the soil nutrients content of chili and peas in screenning field and in the open field
- To know and compare chlorophyl content of and peas in screenning field and in the open field
Material and methods :
Time and place : Tuesday, 18 September 2012 at Cikabayan Farm University
Wednesday, 19 September 2012 at Gunung Geulis Ijo Lestari Organic Farm
- Chlorophyl analysis : Chlorophyl meter (SPAD 502), leaves of palm oil, rubber, coffee and coconut, leaves of chili and peas.
- Soil analysis : Dr. Soil (Fujihira Industry), soil from oil palm field, rubber field, coffee field, coconut field, chili field and peas field.
- Chlorophyl analysis : Measurements are taken by closing the measuring head on the leaf. The result can be stored in memory and displayed on a trend graph
- Soil analysis : Extract the soil sample, pour the filtrat to the test tube, pour the deionized water up to the gradation 3 and add coloring reagent. Then, compare with chart.
Result and discussion (Chlorophyl analysis)
Graph 1. The chlorophyll content of coffee
Graph 2. The chlorophyll content of rubber
Graph 3. The chlorophyll content of oil palm
Graph 4. The chlorophyll content of coconut
Graph 5. The chlorophyll content of chili in the screnning field
Graph 6. The chlorophyll content of peas in the screnning field
Graph 7. The chlorophyll content of chili in the open field
Graph 8. The chlorophyll content of peas in the open field
The chlorophyll content of a plant depends of many factors, i.e. genotypes, habitat (sun or shade plant), age of leaves, morphology of leaves (thick or thin, wide or narrow), soil organic matter (esp. Mg), etc. The condition of plantation at Cikabayan plantation (coffee, coconut, oli palm, and rubber) is not very good cultivated. The chlorophyll content of coffee and rubber increases by age. They have same trend because coffee and rubber are dicotyl plant which have same morphology of leaves also branching leaf veins. While oil palm and coconut, it increases from the young leaves to middle ones then decreases in the old leaves. It’s because the chlorophyll content of leaves was low in the early stage of growth, incteased gradually as the plant grew and then decreased in the later stage (liu et al, 1984). Oil palm and coconut also include in the monocotyl plant which have parallel leaf veins. In the gunung geulis organic farm, the condition of plantation is well-cultivated, both in open field and screen house ones. The chlorophyll content of two sample plants (chili pepper and peas) between in the open field and screen house is similar. But in average, plant in the open field has the higher content of chlorophyll than plant in the screening field (shade plant). This is because the concentration of ligh in the sreenning field is lower than in the open field. In chili pepper, it increases by age of leaves. In peas, it increases from young to middle aged leaves then decreases in the old ones. It has same reason with plantation in Cikabayan that the chlorophyll content of leaves was low in the early stage of growth, incteased gradually as the plant grew and then decreased in the later stage. The chlorophyll analysis done in Cikabayan and Gunung Geulis only consider factor of habitat and age of leaves.
Result and discussion (Soil analysis)
Graph 9. Soil chemical (NH4-N) content at Cikabayan
Graph 10. Soil chemical (P2O5) content at Cikabayan
Graph 11. Soil chemical (K2O) content at Cikabayan
Graph 12. Soil chemical (NH4-N) content at Gunung Geulis Organic Farm
Graph 13. Soil chemical (P2O5) content at Gunung Geulis Organic Farm
Graph 14. Soil chemical (K2O) content at Gunung Geulis Organic Farm
Table 1. Other Soil chemical content at Gunung Geulis Organic Farm
The soil content in agricultural plantation depends on the type of soil, soil pH, fertilization, watering, soil organism and microorganism activities, decomposition rate of litter, etc. At Cikabayan perennial field , the main soil organic contents (N, P, K) for all four plants are relative similar because they grow at the same area (not too far each other). For N content, all of plant field has the same content of N 1 mg/100 g soil, content of P also the same for all plant field 5 mg/100 g soil. But for K content have variation of content coffe has 100 mg/100 g soil, coconut has 35 mg/100 g soil, oil palm has 150 mg/100 g soil and rubber has 100 mg/100 g soil. Concentration of P in the Cikabayan field is very low < 10 (source : MOA) for moderate we should add more P into Cikabayan field until 20-40 mg/100 g soil. But, for K content at avarage has very high > 60 mg/100 g soil (source : MOA). We should reduce the K content until moderate 21-40 mg/100 g because K content which very high in the soil can inhibit the absorption of high cation others (antagonists) can lead to a deficiency of Mg and Ca.While N content is very low 1 mg/100 g soil, so we should increased content of N because N is very important (macro essensial) in the soil.
At Gunung Geulis Organic Farm, N content in the screen field and open field are the same 1 mg/100 g soil, while P and K content in the screen house is higher than in the open field this is because in the open field has the higher frequency of watering than in the screen house. This is because the rainfall is directly trough the plantation on the open field, while inside the screen house, there’s no rain Although in Gunung Geulis, the difference fertilizer dosage is given, one dosage for screen house and three dosage for open field. Same as at Cikabayan field, N content in Gunung Geulis organic farm is very low and K content is very high. While P content is moderate. So we should increase N content and reduce P content. The soil analysis done in Cikabayan and Gunung Geulis only to measure a few kinds of organic content. It is important to analyze the other factors that involved so that the data obtained can be comprehensive and representative. The comprehensive data is needed to make comprehensive conclusion, which is important for the further development of better agricultural practices.
November 14th, 2012
Summer Course Report
Nugrahaning Sani Dewi
Mechanical and Biosystem Engineering
Summer Course Program on Sustainable Agriculture for Food Security held for 6 days (16-21 September 2012) was very impressive and provides many lessons and experiences were never forgotten. The first 2 days that seem stiff and tight scedules as filled with lectures and presentations had provided many lessons that was new for me. Lectures from various fields of science that was very interesting. The first day opened with a public lecture given by Prof. Youji Nitta entitled “Rice Production in Asia and Japan ” which makes me understand overview of rice production in Asia, including in Japan. Prof. Nitta also explained the different types of rice varieties in the world and in Japan that have been developed, how Japan can meet the needs of the rice and the technology used.
The second lecture was interesting because that was my background of science, Dr. I Wayan Astika “Determination and Mapping of Paddy Leaf Color as a Reference for Fertilizing”. Since agriculture in Indonesia is leading to precision agriculture, determination of an appropriate fertilizer for paddy is needed. One way to look at mapping the distribution of paddy leaf color as a reference for fertilizing. A simple yet effective. Then Dr. Imam Rusmana in the third lecture describes the potentials of Microbes for Methane Mitigation in Paddy Fields and fourth lecture was most interesting study for me is the “plant factory” by Dr. Tsuyoshi Okayama. The concept of how crops are produced be the same as a factory produced like cars or clothes. Plants produced in a factory plant in a room with artificial lighting and nutrients to grow with computerized environmental control and systematic. A new concept that was very interesting to try. The second day was replenished with lectures and presentations. Lecture initiated by Dr. Slamet Budijanto who recently launched a new product from the IPB “Analogue Rice”. A concept of the composition of rice instead of rice but rather a mixture of sorghum flour, maize and cassava were the answer to feeding the Indonesian culture that if you do not eat rice shall mean not eating. Since the productivity of rice in Indonesia is still low while the demand for rice continues to rise, it requires other sources of staple rice needs. One way to make Analouge Rice that its nutrient composition can also be arranged according to specific needs such as rice for diabetics. I think Analouge Rice is the right way to solve the problem of food security in Indonesia because we do not need to change the culture of eat for Indonesian people . We can still eat “rice” though not rice but better nutritional value than rice. The second lecture raised the issue of increasing the productivity of rice. Prof. Bambang Purwoko describes the Application of Anther Culture in Rice Breeding Program, how to breed rice with haploid technique has many advantages for increasing rice productivity without genetic trans. The third lecture by Dr.Nobuo Sakagami “Distribution of Ectomycorrhizal Sclerotia and Its Importance as a Component Organic Soil in Forest Soils”. Dr. Sakagami very cute and unique in communication, he wants to find answers about the role of Ectomycorrhizal Sclerotia in nature and the distribution. Many of the questions in his thoughts and provide motivation for me to always be critical and keep asking what and how something in nature can happen and the next role. Lecture by Dr. Atsushi Asano, titled “Advancements in Animal Reproduction Technology” is a field of science that are new to me and very interesting, I learned how advances in animal reproductive technologies today. The last lecture by Dr. Djoko Priono, M.Agr.Sc explained general state of pests and diseases that attack rice crops in Indonesia, lecture filled with material that should have been given in one semester of college. While the presentation of the entire summer course participants conducted in the first and second day, it is very interesting because from different background knowledge , so greatly to know. We are able to understand the character of each participant judging by the way they communicate and present their presentation.
The third day we did field work, the participants were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 and 2 visited parennial plantation at Cikabayan and groups 3 and 4 in the paddy field at sawah baru. I went to Cikabayan because included in group 2. At there we was explained about oil palm, how the future prospects of this plant, how to plant oil palm from pre nursery, main nursery until oil palm can be harvested at the age of 3-4 years. We were given the task of taking samples of soil and measuring the content of chlorophyll for the coffee and coconut, while groups 1 take the sample of oil palm and rubber. We analyze the chemical content of soil with dr. Soil and content of chlorophyll by using SPAD. This activity is very interesting because we are trained to work in a team. We can understand each other and understand how each person’s work and learn more about this new tool (dr. Soil). At noon we went to Taiwan ICDF to have lunch together and learn about the organic farming and it’s management. All of the participants was growing familiar with each other, because while learning we can communicate properly because the atmosphere is relaxing and being outdoors. We joked a lot and got a lot of new experiences. In the afternoon we went to an organic farm “Gunung Geulis Ijo Lestari” in Gadog area. There we stayed together for one night which fun and enjoy for us. Very fun to get together, joke together besides got a lot of lessons of organic farming and pioneering efforts. On the fourth day we did field work around the organic farm. We as group 2 were given the task to take soil samples and determain the content of chlorophyll of pepper and peas in a screnning house that will be compared to plants outside the screnning house which data is retrieved by the group 3.
This activity is very interesting because we are required to return to work within a team and got the new lesson how to make organic farm, how to make fertilizer to post harvest handling. After the field work, we went to the Safari Park to see many animals that from diary and abroad. This activity is most exciting because we got a lot of entertainment on our tight scedules. That was fun because we were trying so hard to introduce animals that exist in Indonesia to our Japanese friends, lots of funny events that we experienced such as Fumi san who desperately wants to see the komodo dragons, but ultimately to be disappointed because it was no improvement. Eventually he could only take pictures in front of the dragons nameplate only.
Finally at the fifth day we work hard to make our report of field work from morning until noon. Finally, we present the results of activity of us in front of all the participants and our sensei. Many funny incident when we try to communicate our thoughts to each participant in our team including our Japanese friends when creating reports. But we got through it all by getting 3rd place in the best group in the closing ceremony. The performance of our japanese friend was so great and very cute. The culture night was the most great moment ever.
The fifth day we were supposed to accompany our Japanese friends to botanical garden, but as I have in care at the hospital, I could not take them. Very sad and disappointed because I could not say goodbye to them directly, because the 5 days we were together we were very close as a family. Many memories and unforgettable events. I had a wonderful time with all participants of the summer course. So many experiences and lessons I learned at this event. Hard work, friendship, patience, laughter and jokes, we had together. Hopefully this event can continue. Cooperation in various fields between the IPB, Ibaraki University, the University of Tsukuba and the University of the Ryuku stay in touch and develop. Due to this event we as young people from different countries and universities can be friends, exchanging knowledge, exchanging language and gain valuable experiences in our lives. Thank you to all the organizers for organizing this event and made us have wonderful memories of this. Thank you.